The entry into force on 1 October 2005 will improve social security protection for people who work or have worked in both countries. It helps many people who, without the agreement, would not be entitled to monthly retirement, disability or survivors` benefits under the social security system of one or both countries. It also helps people who would otherwise have to pay social security taxes to the two countries with the same incomes. Self-employed persons who would have to pay social security contributions to both countries in the absence of social security tax are subject to special rules (see table below). In addition, spouses and children of the above-mentioned Chinese nationals who reside in Japan may, under certain conditions, apply for an exemption from social security contributions during their stay in Japan.