The Origin of the Indo-Iranians (Leiden Indo-European by Elena E. Kuz’mina, J.P. Mallory (ed.), S. Pitina & P.

By Elena E. Kuz’mina, J.P. Mallory (ed.), S. Pitina & P. Prudovsky (trans.)

Right here, then is the fruit of Elena Kuz'mina's life-long quest for the Indo-Iranians. Already its predecessor ("Otkuda prishli indoarii", released in 1994) was once thought of the main finished research of the origins of the Indo-Iranians ever released, yet during this new, considerably elevated version (edited by means of J.P. Mallory) we discover a complete account of the Andronovo tradition of Eurasia. Taking its proof from archaeology, linguistics, ethnology, mythology, and actual anthropology concerning Indo-Iranian origins and expansions, it comprehensively covers the relationships of this tradition with neighboring parts and cultures, and its position within the beginning of the Indo-Iranian peoples.

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The Origin of the Indo-Iranians (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series)

The following, then is the fruit of Elena Kuz'mina's life-long quest for the Indo-Iranians. Already its predecessor ("Otkuda prishli indoarii", released in 1994) was once thought of the main complete research of the origins of the Indo-Iranians ever released, yet during this new, considerably increased version (edited by means of J.

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Tkachev (1991) assigned the cemeteries of Bozingen and Izhevskiy I to the late Alakul’ stage; E. F. Usmanova (1987) assigned the Ayshrak and Belakty burials to the Alakul’ type as there were no clear Fedorovo features in these complexes. Large cemeteries are characteristic of the Atasu type. They contain up to several dozen constructions (Ayshrak— 100) and are enclosed by round, oval and rectangular fences (IVa, VIIa, VIIIa), often with two or more stone cists in the center. Burial is by inhumation, head to the west or south-west; there are several instances of cremation.

A. Teploukhov, the burial rite was deemed the most significant feature for the purposes of cultural and ethno-historical reconstruction. The following features were recorded: 1) type of surface construction; 2) type of grave pit and evidence of recutting; 3) orientation; 4) cremation or inhumation and posture of the deceased; 5) other ritual features; 6) grave goods; 7) animal sacrifice; and 8) funeral feast (Figs. 1; 57). The analysis of the technology of hand-made pottery largely comprises vessel form, technique of manufacture and decoration, and ornamental motifs; these are also very important ethnic indicators and are used as the basis for defining cultures, stages, local variants and types.

The Fedorovo type is divided into a series of local variants according to certain specific features. These variants comprise the Urals, central, northern, eastern Kazakhstan, the Ob, the Yenisey, and Central Asian (Fig. 6). The further one moves from central Kazakhstan the frequency of the complex diminishes and substratum elements increase; they are especially marked in the Yenisey region (Ust’-Erba, Sukhoe Ozero, Novaya Chernaya) where Okunevo cultural traditions can be seen in fences, constructions surrounding graves, square vessel forms and ornaments.

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