By Adam Zamoyski

One evening in December 1755, Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski, the twenty-three-year-old secretary to the British Ambassador in St Petersburg, was once brought into the bed room of the Grand Duchess Catherine Alekseyevna. This marked the start of a torrid and clandestine affair which ended in Stanisław being topped King of Poland in 1764.

The younger king used to be a rushing determine within the best eighteenth-century culture. He used to be an ideal representation of the contradictions of Europe's ideological and spiritual viewpoints: he worshipped cause yet used to be led by means of the guts; professed Catholicism yet believed in windfall; toyed with the occult and practised freemasonry.

A nice believer in artwork and schooling, he spent fortunes on cultural initiatives, and discovering that he was once blocked politically through Catherine, he positioned his energies right into a social and inventive regeneration of his nation. He reworked the temper and outlook of his kingdom and taken it to a brand new section of reform and independence, culminating within the passing of the structure in 1791, hailed in Britain, France and the U.S. as one of many maximum occasions of the century.

Poland's neighbours, despite the fact that, considered this beacon of liberty of their midst with alarm, and as they invaded and partitioned it, Stanislaw was once compelled to observe the destruction of his life's paintings, and finally pressured to abdicate, a damaged guy, deceived and disenchanted.

‘The final King of Poland’ is the wealthy and spell binding tale of a private dream with the entire parts of grand tragedy, whereas even as an enormous chronicle of the start and dying of liberalism in Poland and the institution of Russian strength in Europe.

‘Intelligent, impressively reasearched, fantastically written.’ – Neal Ascherson, The autonomous on Sunday.

‘Writing japanese ecu heritage is nearly actually a nightmare: a floor of operetta, underneath which lurk unending, it sounds as if unnecessary, problems, all finishing in catastrophe. Adam Zamoyski has risen with nice triumph above this, and has contributed a piece of actual scholarship that also is remarkably effortless to read.’ – Norman Stone, The Sunday occasions.

‘A pleasant instance of the biographer's paintings, with a textual content as delicate to the subject's character because it is specialist within the affairs of the subject's times.’ – Norman Davies, the days Literary complement.

‘A story packed with pathos, and Zamoyski tells it well.’ – Niall Ferguson, The Sunday Telegraph.

Count Adam Stefan Zamoyski is a historian and a member of the traditional Zamoyski relatives of Polish the Aristocracy. His books comprise ‘The Forgotten Few’, ‘Holy insanity: Romantics, Patriots and Revolutionaries’, and ‘Paderewski’.

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**Sample text**

Solutions to Chapter 1 Let G be partitioned by the set {H X a I a EA} of cosets of H, and let H be partitioned by the set {KY{3 I f3 E B} of cosets of K. Suppose that g E G. Then we have g E HX a for some a E A and so g = hX a for some (unique) h E H. But h E KY{3 for some f3 E B and so we have that g = kY{3x a for some k E K. Thus we see that every element of G belongs to a coset K Y{3x a for some f3 E B and some a E A. The result now follows from the fact that if KY{3x a = KY{3'x a , then, since the left hand side is contained in the coset H X a and the right hand side is contained in the coset H X a ', we have necessarily X a = X a ', which gives KY{3 = Kyf3' and hence Y{3 = Y{3" Now observe that (HnK)x = HxnKx for all subgroups Hand K of G.

But h E KY{3 for some f3 E B and so we have that g = kY{3x a for some k E K. Thus we see that every element of G belongs to a coset K Y{3x a for some f3 E B and some a E A. The result now follows from the fact that if KY{3x a = KY{3'x a , then, since the left hand side is contained in the coset H X a and the right hand side is contained in the coset H X a ', we have necessarily X a = X a ', which gives KY{3 = Kyf3' and hence Y{3 = Y{3" Now observe that (HnK)x = HxnKx for all subgroups Hand K of G.

Since it is clearly surjective, it follows by the first isomorphism theorem that D 2n is a quotient group of D oo . 12 = a. (i) Define f: ([+ -> IR+ by f(a+ib) which is surjective. Since Then f is a group morphism the result follows by the first isomorphism theorem. (ii) Define f : ([" -> U by a+i b -> Then f a . b ~+~~. ~ va 2 = I} ~ IR;o. The result now follows by the first isomorphism theorem. l if a> OJ if a < O. Then f is a surjective group morphism with Ker f = IR;o' Also, define 9 : IQ" -> G2 by if a> 0; if a < O.