By C.H. Bamford, C.F.H. Tipper and R.G. Compton (Eds.)
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Additional info for Simple Processes at the Gas-Solid Interface
This depended on the immersion of the whole cell in liquid hydrogen so that any gaseous entities not impinging on the tip were pumped on to the walls with 100% efficiency. Thus, although gaseous species were entering the cell, these workers could be sure that the out-of-beam parts of the tip were remaining clean (vacua, Pa). Other when the cell was cooled in this way, were estimated as sources of adsorbates are commonly filaments or ribbons of the particular material, placed line-of-sight with one side of the tip, which are resistively heated t o their evaporation temperature t o deposit atoms on the tip surface.
References p p . 163-1 79 40 by biassing all cylinders at - 22 V and measuring the ion current to Co when the filament was heated t o evaporate all the species. Assuming that the diffusion coefficient was concentration-independent, the flux of diffusing atoms (calculated from the number evaporated from the central region) was equal to - Ddo/dt, and D could be determined. The activation energy fo diffusion, Em, was found from the variation of D with temperature. In 1933, Brattain and Becker  measured the thermionic emission from a polycrystalline tungsten ribbon and its variation with adsorbate coverage to investigate thorium diffusion.
10. Experimental arrangement for photon beam scanning as used by Bosworth . AB is the W ribbon used in the experiments; C is the source of alkali ions; D is a shield to direct alkali ions; wire E is used to measure ion currents; and F is an earthed can. Effects on the secondary electron emission can be assessed very simply by measuring the total drain current, It, t o the crystal surface It = Ip + I, (19) where I, is the secondary electron current (all back-scattered electrons) and Ip is the primary beam current; Ip and I, are opposite in sign and, depending on their relative magnitude, there is a drain current t o the 33 crystal from earth or vice versa.