By C. Demmke, M. Bovens, T. Henökl, K. van Lierop T. Moilanen, G. Pikker, A. Salminen
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Extra resources for Regulating Conflicts of Interest for Holders of Public Office in the European Union. A Comparative Study of the Rules and Standards of Professional Ethics for the Holders of Public Office in the EU-27 and EU Institutions
Legislators also face different accountability and legitimacy challenges. For example, which has primacy: one’s own political career, one’s own professional activities, the party, the electorate, the government or the nation? “Probably legislators face the widest range of potentially conflicting interests: personal, representational and other private pecuniary and non-pecuniary interests. Certain interests are personally inherent: as a resident of a town or province, as a parent, spouse, or child, as a female or male, as indigenous or non-indigenous, and so on.
109. 11. 34 bribery; there was no movement to any similar degree in other aspects of politicians’ perceived behaviour. The public apply very similar standards to senior public officials as they do to MPs and Government ministers in terms of the behaviour they demand. ”42 This survey shows that a) high standards of integrity are important, b) public perceptions are changing quickly and c) public trust is a very fragile and vulnerable concept. Generally people expect HPO to have very high standards of integrity because they have more power, influence and decision-making discretion than any public official and any private persons.
6 37 At the same time, this conclusion should not be interpreted in the sense that the simple answer is more regulation and that ethics regimes of public officials or of other categories of Holders of Public Office should be taken as a benchmark for the regulation of legislators. As we have seen, CoI are abundant for legislators. This also means that legislators need specific rules and standards in the field of CoI. In addition, they need to be trained on CoI and must be made aware of (un-) ethical issues.