By Knud Erik Jørgensen
Celebrating the lifestyles of contending theories of ecu integration, the e-book starts off with a serious exploration of the strategies and theories used to ascertain this special coverage, providing theoretically educated, empirical stories of the beginning of the most important topics of ecu governance, territorial politics, domestic-European linkages and the EU's overseas coverage affairs.
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However, the network concept itself is still a very fuzzy one (van Waarden, 1992). Whether networks are indeed a new type of social order or even a new paradigm for the architecture of complexity (KenislSchneider, 1991: 25) shall not be discussed here. In any case, networks or negotiation systems constitute a conceptual tool helpful for thinking beyond the dichotomy of market versus state. As a result, governance is not dependent on hierarchy but can as well proceed through negotiation among actors (Mayntz, 1993a, 1993b).
The first factor has frequently been dealt with in the literature under the label of 'globalization', 'internationalization' or 'emergence of a world society' and shall therefore not be further discussed here (Ziirn, 1995). The internationalization of functional systems such as the economy or parts of it like trade and finance, science, technology, the environment, etc. undermines the action capacity of states and thus leads to a demand for international governance in order to at least partly compensate this loss of autonomous state power.
As noted by John Ruggie 'the international system is formed ... like a market: it is individualistic in origin, and more or less spontaneously generated as a by-product of the actions of its constitutive units' (1986). Ashley (1986) was among the first to point out neorealism's individualist basis, but Wendt (1987, 1992) caught more attention when he made parallel points some years later. Wendt's critique is important in this context because it illustrates the consequences ofletting a supposedly structural theory rest on an individualist ontology: Waltz seems to be a holist, but in fact he treats the self regarding identities and interests of states as given prior to interaction Marlene Wind 25 .