Recent Advances in Cognitive-Developmental Theory: Progress by Barry J. Zimmerman (auth.), Charles J. Brainerd (eds.)

By Barry J. Zimmerman (auth.), Charles J. Brainerd (eds.)

For it slow now, the learn of cognitive improvement has been a ways and away the main energetic self-discipline inside of developmental psychology. even though there will be a lot war of words as to the precise percentage of papers released in boost­ psychological journals that may be thought of cognitive, 50% sounds like a conservative estimate. consequently, a sequence of scholarly books dedicated to paintings in cognitive devel­ opment is principally acceptable at the present. The Springer sequence in Cognitive improvement comprises uncomplicated kinds of books, particularly, edited collections of unique chapters by way of a number of authors, and unique volumes written through one writer or a small workforce of authors. The flagship for the Springer sequence is a serial booklet of the "advances" kind, wearing the subtitle development in Cognitive improvement study. each one quantity within the growth series is strongly thematic, in that it really is constrained to a couple well-defined area of cognitive­ developmental study (e.g., logical and mathematical improvement, improvement of learning). All development volumes could be edited collections. Editors of such collections, upon session with the sequence Editor, may well opt for to have their books released both as contributions to the growth series or as separate volumes. All books written by way of one writer or a small staff of authors are being released as separate volumes in the series.

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Recent Advances in Cognitive-Developmental Theory: Progress in Cognitive Development Research

For it slow now, the research of cognitive improvement has been some distance and away the main energetic self-discipline inside of developmental psychology. even though there will be a lot confrontation as to the precise share of papers released in boost­ psychological journals that may be thought of cognitive, 50% feels like a conservative estimate.

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In social learning theory, however, motivation and information acquisition are given equal status. In fact, motivation is assumed to reciprocally affect the cognitive subprocesses of attention and retention as well as terminal motoric performance. Both external events (such as reinforcement contingencies) and internal events (the interpretation of contingencies) combine to determine motivation (Bandura, 1977b). Figure 1-3. A social learning view of reciprocal determinism. Social Learning Theory 21 mOd"l \mpl~ ~--------, -----..

He has used the construct of "self-efficacy" to describe the directive role of people's knowledge on their overt performance. He distinguishes between two types of expectancies: an outcome expectation and an efficacy expectation (see Figure 1-5). "An outcome expeptancy is defined as a person's estimate that a given behavior will lead to certain outcomes" (Bandura, 1977a, p. 193, italics added). According to Bandura, outcome expectancies are not sufficiently context specific to enable us to predict an individual's behavior.

Bandura's (1982a) reciprocal model of interaction differs fundamentally from nonmediational accounts of functioning and unidirectional cognitive accounts in the proposed direction of causality. In theories of the latter sort, the environment is treated as the beginning point in the explanatory process rather than as an interactive entity. Bandura's triadic model also differs from dyadic models of interaction, in which B = f(P # E), which are in vogue even among some contextualist researchers. The latter approaches do not treat a person's behavior as separately interactive in determining intrapersonal and environmental events.

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