By US Army and www.survivalebooks.com
This guide is a advisor for engineer group of workers accountable for carrying out plumbing and pipe becoming operations. This handbook offers info on water, waste, and heating structures and uncomplicated plumbing strategies. Use this consultant to assist fix furniture, leaky pipes, and valves; to make pipe joints; to put in water, waste, and heating structures; and to check and repair those structures.
Plumbers set up and service water platforms, waste platforms, and furnishings; reduce, ream, thread, and bend pipes; and caulk, solder, and try joints or platforms for leaks.
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The minimum width of trenches on the basis of soil are as follows: • • • • Sand and sandy loam, 1 foot. Loam, 2 feet. Sand and clay mixture, 2 feet. Clay with some gravel, 3 feet. 2") Tar paper over the joints Varies 6" tile pipe with open joints (3/8" clear space at the joints) 18" above the groundwater table NOTE: No vehicle traffic is allowed over the tile drain field. Figure 1-29. Typical Layout of a Subsurface Tile System 1-182. Placing tile below the frost line to prevent freezing is not necessary.
If a trenching machine is available, base the design on the width of the trench excavated by the machine. 1-187. Fence or post the tile field after it is constructed to prevent vehicle traffic from crushing the tile. Planting shrubs or trees over the field is not a good idea since the roots tend to clog the tile lines, but grass over the lines helps remove the moisture and keep the soil open. A typical section of a tile filter trench is shown in Figure 1-29, page 1-55. Subsurface Drain Fields 1-188.
Remove the earth and pile it at the end of the trench so that each individual can properly cover his excreta and toilet paper. Close the saddle-trench latrines as described in paragraph 1-132, page 1-35. Toilet paper holder with paper Protective can for toilet paper 1" x 4" planks optional could be replaced by flat rocks 1' 4' 2 1/2' Excavated dirt used for covering Figure 1-15. Saddle-Trench Latrine with a Hand-Washing Device DEEP-PIT LATRINE 1-135. The deep-pit latrine is used with a latrine box (Figure 1-16).