Phytochemicals, Signal Transduction, and Neurological by Akhlaq A. Farooqui

By Akhlaq A. Farooqui

Phytochemicals sign Transduction and Neurological issues Phytochemicals are heterogeneous staff of bioactive compounds produced by way of crops, that are broadly researched through scientists for his or her health-promoting potentials in human ailments. in contrast to nutrients, phytochemicals should not required for maintaining cellphone viability, yet they play a big position in preserving tissues and cells from the damaging results of oxidative pressure and irritation. Examples of phytochemicals comprise catechins, resveratrol, ginkgo biloba, curcumin, and sulfur compounds present in garlic. even though, the best molecular mechanisms linked to helpful results of phytochemicals nonetheless stay the topic of extreme investigations, however it is changing into more and more obtrusive that phytochemicals mediate their results via counteracting, decreasing, and repairing the wear and tear brought on by oxidative pressure and neuroinflammation. additionally, phytochemicals additionally stimulate the synthesis of adaptive enzymes and proteins in the course of the stimulation of a transcription issue referred to as Nrf2 and induction of section II detoxifying enzymes. intake of phytochemicals induces neurohormetic reaction that leads to the expression of adaptive stress-resistance genes which are chargeable for encoding antioxidant enzymes, protein chaperones, and neurotrophic issue (BDNF). in keeping with the stimulation of sign transduction community and adaptive stress-resistance genes, it really is proposed that using phytochemicals from early life to outdated age in addition to common workout is a crucial technique for protecting general getting older and delaying onset of age-related neurological issues (stroke, Alzheimer sickness, and Parkinson disease). Phytochemicals sign Transduction and Neurological problems provides readers with innovative and complete details not just on bioavailability, and mechanism of motion of phytochemicals within the mind, but in addition offers the molecular mechanism linked to worthwhile results of phytochemicals in neurotraumatic (stroke, spinal twine trauma, and nerve-racking mind harm) and neurodegenerative (Alzheimers illness, Parkinson disorder, Huntington disorder, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) diseases.

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Decrease in neurotransmitter has been reported to occur in aging brain. Thus, dopamine levels decline by around 10 % per decade from early adulthood and have been associated with declines in cognitive and motor performance (Nyberg and Backman 2004). This may be due to either decline in the dopaminergic pathways between the frontal cortex and the striatum during aging or may be caused by reduction in binding between dopamine and dopamine receptor. 4 Effect of Aging on Human Brain 15 neurotrophic factor levels also fall with increasing age and may be implicated in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult brain (Mattson et al.

2004), mitochondrial dysfunction, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (see below). Aging also results in elevation of microglial activation in several brain regions including hippocampus (Finch and Cohen 1997). Aging is accompanied by induction of oxidative stress, which not only refers to increased production of ROS, but also cytotoxic consequences caused by ROS in a cell by processes that utilize molecular oxygen. ROS is a collective term, which includes superoxide anions (O2•−), hydroxyl (•OH), alkoxyl (RO•−), and peroxyl radicals (ROO•), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (Halliwell 2006).

3 Effect of Exercise on Stroke and Neurodegenerative Diseases 13 These chemicals and metals may cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and produce a neurotoxic threat. Heavy metals (cadmium, aluminum) and toxic chemicals (paraquat, pesticides, and herbicides) can induce degeneration of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons, a characteristic of PD (Lai et al. 2002; Frisardi et al. 2010). These chemicals and metals contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases not only by mediating mitochondrial and proteasomal dysfunctions, but also by chemically inducing changes in gene regulation which are associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as PD and AD (Edward and Myers 2008; Horowitz and Greenamyre 2010).

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