By Robert H. Chen
An unheard of look at the elemental physics, chemistry, and expertise at the back of the LCD
Most particularly used for machine displays, televisions, and cellphones, LCDs (liquid crystal screens) are a pervasive and more and more crucial a part of our lives. offering either an old and a business-minded context, this large source describes the original clinical and engineering innovations used to create those attractive, smart, and eminently precious devices.
In this publication, the background of the technological know-how and know-how at the back of the liquid crystal display is defined in a prelude to the advance of the machine, featuring a rational improvement subject and pinpointing concepts. The ebook starts off with Maxwell's idea of electromagnetism, and the eventually profound cognizance that gentle is an electromagnetic wave and an electromagnetic wave is light.
The energy of mathematical physics therefore used to be delivered to undergo upon the learn of sunshine, and especially the polarization of sunshine through fabric our bodies, together with liquid crystals. After a quick ancient description of polarization, a actual interpretation offers substance to the mathematical recommendations. next chapters cover:
Thermodynamics for liquid crystals
The Maier-Saupe suggest box, phenomenological, static continuum, and dynamic continuum theories
The transistor and built-in circuit
Glass, panels, and modules
The calculus of variations
The energetic matrix
The international liquid crystal display business
Additionally, the publication illustrates how arithmetic, physics, and chemistry are placed to functional use within the LCDs we use on a daily basis. by way of describing the technology from an historic viewpoint and in sensible phrases within the context of a tool very favourite to readers, the publication provides a fascinating and distinct view of the know-how for everybody from technological know-how scholars to engineers, product designers, and certainly someone fascinated about LCDs.
Series Editor: Anthony C. Lowe, The Lambent Consultancy, Braishfield, UK
The Society for info demonstrate (SID) is a world society, which has the purpose of encouraging the advance of all points of the sector of knowledge exhibit. Complementary to the goals of the society, the Wiley-SID sequence is meant to provide an explanation for the most recent advancements in info show know-how at a qualified point. The large scope of the sequence addresses all aspects of data screens from technical facets via structures and prototypes to criteria and ergonomics.
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Extra info for Liquid crystal displays : fundamental physics and technology
The Electric Dipole Moment The simple expression for the relation between index of refraction (the material’s effect on light) and the dielectric constant (the property of the material) given above are sufficient for describing simple systems, that is, nonmagnetic, dielectrically isotropic materials, but liquid crystals in particular are anisotropic, the anisotropy in effect being the cause of its birefringence. A more complete description of the dipole moment would require a method of quantifying the effects in different directions in the material; this can be done by the tensor analysis which will be introduced in Chapter 11 for treating elastic deformations of the liquid crystal, but for the dipole moment (intrinsic and induced), the average dipole moment will be used to finesse the problem, as to be described below.
Maxwell’s Equations 11 Having had no formal scientific training, Faraday relied on experiments and intuition to comprehend electromagnetic phenomena, the scholarly Maxwell began with the mechanistic view in accord with his classical training, and the different approaches together produced the theory. Maxwell’s purely mechanical constructs at first lead to a hopeless complexity, but they contributed clearly analogical mathematical wherewithal, such as the vector calculus of fluid mechanics, to attack the electromagnetic problem, providing not only help in understanding, but also a mathematical formalism propelled by the powerful analytical tools of mathematical physics.
Gauss’ law is ∫∫ E ˆ ndA = q / ε. w ∫∫ The closed surface integral (the meaning of ) of the electric field vector (E) in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the enclosed area, with ˆ wherein E D nˆ is simply the the latter being denoted by the unit vector n, projection of E onto nˆ , or in other terms, Ecos θ, where θ is the angle between ˆ For example, in the simple spherical charge distribution shown E and n. 4 A point charge (left) and a spherical charge (right) produce an emanating electrical flux.