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Preventive techniques are process-specific but general considerations may include: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. (i) avoiding underground structures incorporating features that facilitate dismantling choosing surface finishes that are easily decontaminated using an equipment configuration that minimises trapped chemicals and facilitates drain-down or washing designing flexible, self-contained units that enable phased closure using biodegradable and recyclable materials where possible. Development of cleaner technologies: - (j) environmental protection should be an inherent feature of any process design activities carried out by the operator, since techniques incorporated at the earliest possible design stage are both more effective and cheaper.
However, the options for improvement will depend on the particular case. On an integrated site, it has to be considered that changes in one plant might affect parameters of other plants. This applies also to changes with environmental driving forces [154, TWG on LVIC-AAF, 2006]. Economics Cost benefits through: • • • improved energy efficiency less consumption of demineralised water lower investment by using a common ammonia vapouriser. In the example, savings in operation costs of more than EUR 1000000/year are achieved.
Energy consumption has become an environmental issue because of the ecological impact of energy production and transport, and because of the emission of greenhouse gases from fuel burning. Fertiliser production currently accounts for about 2 – 3 % of the total global energy consumption. For Western Europe, the corresponding figure is about 1 %. Nitrogen fertilisers account for a large majority of this consumption. Most of the energy for fertiliser production is required by the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen to manufacture ammonia.