Emerging actuator technologies: a micromechatronic approach by José L. Pons

By José L. Pons

Actuators are units that convert electricity into mechanical paintings, ordinarily utilized in electric, pneumatic and hydraulic structures. because the call for for actuator applied sciences grows in biomedical, prosthetic and orthotic purposes, there's an expanding desire for complicated and complex items that practice successfully additionally while scaled to micro and nano domain names. delivering a complete evaluate of actuators for novel functions, this wonderful ebook: * offers a mechatronic method of the layout, regulate and integration of more than a few applied sciences protecting piezoelectric actuators, form reminiscence actuators, electro-active polymers, magnetostrictive actuators and electro- and magnetorheological actuators. * Examines the features and function of rising actuators upon scaling to micro and nano domain names. * Assesses the relative benefits of every actuator know-how and descriptions potential program fields. supplying an in depth research on present advances within the box, this ebook will attract practicing electric and electronics engineers constructing novel actuator platforms. Mechanical and automation engineers, machine scientists and researchers also will locate this an invaluable source.

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Additionally, they enable the implementation of disturbance rejection strategies. Feed-forward control schemes (sensorless) are susceptible of being affected both by inaccuracy in the plant and actuator models and by external (to the plant and the actuator) and internal disturbances. On the contrary, feedback schemes are much more robust against disturbances and can make allowance for inaccuracy in the models. Sensors monitor the status of the plant, ideally without influencing it. Since they are transducing devices, there will always be a flow of energy through them (a sensor in which no flow of energy is established in either direction is not physically practicable).

Temperature and temperature fluctuations have a direct undesired effect on most actuator technologies: there are upper limits on the temperatures that piezoelectric actuators can sustain because of depolarization; the electrical conductivity characteristics of ERF actuators can change as a result of temperature fluctuations. Humidity has a direct effect on wet EAPs, so that there are strict packaging technology requirements unless the application is intrinsically wet. 7 A classification of actuator technologies Actuators, as a particular category of transducers, can be classified according to a variety of criteria.

All these actuators are presented in Chapter 4. (e) Electrorheological fluid (ERF) actuators. Like MRF actuators, the rheological properties of ERF actuators are altered when an electric field is applied. Again, these are semiactive actuators and so can only dissipate the energy of the plant. They are analyzed in Chapter 6. 4. Fluid-mechanical transduction. Some traditional actuators (pneumatic and hydraulic actuators) convert the pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy, either rotational or translational.

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