Electronic Measurement Techniques by D. F. A. Edwards

By D. F. A. Edwards

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2. DEFLECTIONAL METHODS Since the effective value of a current is defined in relation to its heating effect it is natural that the heating effect should be used as a basis of measurement. 1. Hot-wire Meters In the hot-wire meter the current to be measured is passed through a fine wire, so heating it.

To what extent could this instrument be compensated and, if it is accurately adjusted at 15°C, what error would be expected when all the parts were at 35°C? Note: Potential terminals are those actually connected to the instru­ ment. Answer. Temperature errors are due to the fact that the resistance of the moving coil, of the phosphor bronze spring and the connecting leads increase with a rise in temperature. The shunt, however, does not DIRECT CURRENT INSTRUMENTS 39 increase in value to any great extent, being made, not of copper as is the moving coil, but of a special alloy such as Manganin.

Voltage standards are available; these consist basically of an oscillator whose output voltage is held stable in amplitude to an extremely high degree (of the order of 1 part in 10 4 ) by appropriate electronic circuitry. c. e. deflectional and null methods, and again null methods, where 60 ALTERNATING CURRENT MEASUREMENTS 61 applicable, are the more accurate. C. null methods are described in Chapter 8. 2. DEFLECTIONAL METHODS Since the effective value of a current is defined in relation to its heating effect it is natural that the heating effect should be used as a basis of measurement.

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