An Historical Atlas of Central Asia (Handbook of Oriental by Yuri Bregel

By Yuri Bregel

Yuri Bregel's Atlas offers us with a bird's eye view of the advanced background of this significant a part of the Islamic international, that is heavily attached with the background of Iran, Afghanistan, China, and Russia; at assorted instances elements of this quarter have been incorporated in those neighboring states, and because 1991 5 new self sufficient states emerged in vital Asia: Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. overlaying the 4th century B.C. to the current, the maps express a few of the political entities, their approximate borders, the most important ethnic teams and their migrations, army campaigns and battles, and so on. each one map is followed via a textual content which provides a concise survey of the most occasions of the political and ethnic historical past of the respective interval. With distinct maps at the distribution of the Turkmen, Uzbek, Qazaq, and Qirghiz tribes within the 19th-20th centuries, in addition to the site of significant archaeological websites and architectural monuments. The final map (Central Asia in 2000) indicates present fuel and oil pipelines.

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Additional resources for An Historical Atlas of Central Asia (Handbook of Oriental Studies Handbuch Der Orientalistik - Part 8: Uralic & Central Asian Studies, 9)

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These conquests were achieved under the command of the viceroy of Khorasan, Qutayba b. Muslim, who was appointed to this post in 705. By that time the Islamization of Iran, conquered by the Arabs half a century earlier, was already well advanced, and recently converted Persians sometimes played an important role in Qutayba’s campaigns, so that some modern scholars prefer to use the expression “Islamic conquest” (instead of “Arab conquest”) of Central Asia. Qutayba took advantage of the total lack of unity among the local rulers, who not only often failed to come to one other’s help in the face of the Arab attacks but sometimes even assisted the conquerors.

Almost simultaneously, Hotan regained its independence from Tibet (in 851), and, after a period of internecine wars between various Tibetan generals, by the end of the 880s the Tibetan Empire disintegrated into a number of petty lordships, never to be restored. While the Uyghurs were banished from Mongolia and came to Eastern Turkestan, the Qarluqs strengthened their position in Semirech’e. The Turkic tribes Yaghma, Chigil, and Tukhsi, which inhabited the area of the Western Tien-Shan and the northwestern part of the Tarim basin, joined the Qarluq tribal union.

They migrated west after the destruction of the Uyghur Qaghanate, in the last quarter of the 8th century. The Oghuz occupied the lower course of the Sïr-Darya and the regions north of the Aral Sea as far west as the Volga after a long struggle with the Kangars (Pechenegs) who had inhabited these areas previously, and the Pechenegs migrated westward, to the East European steppes. The areas north of the Sïr-Darya became known to Islamic writers as “the Steppe of the Ghuzz” (from the Arabic transcription of the name Oghuz).

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